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宋代熏香

宋代熏香文化臻至鼎盛, 宫廷贵族、文人雅士乃至平民百姓, 无不以熏香为风尚。宫墙内外, 大至祭天祀祖, 细至衣食住行, 熏香均不可或缺。宋代物质文
明与精神文明达到前所未有的高度, 通过熏香可见一斑。

通过比照古代香药谱录和相关笔记, 结合今人认识, 考述宋代常见香料、时兴香具, 还原不同场合熏香风貌, 反映两宋审美意趣、民俗风情。宋代常见香料有沉香、檀香、龙脑、龙涎、麝香, 香具则有博山炉、熏球、兽炉、仿古瓷炉等, 既沿承前朝, 又融合当时审美。

不同场合熏香风貌不同: 宫廷五礼用香, 各有定仪; 燕寝终日凝香,爇香以熏衣被; 书斋雅集焚香凝神静气, 高雅闲逸; 佳节用香习俗不一, 寓意祺祥; 盛席华筵焚香助兴, 及时行乐; 市井经纪之香商业气息浓厚。

宋代熏香文学兴盛, 文人极大丰富了熏香意象的思想内涵, 主要包括感怀伤逝、参禅悟道、追思故国、祷祝福寿。熏香有其独特审美意蕴, 不该和其他香意象一概而论, 尤其焚香坐禅之时, 香为助缘, 鼻观先参, 明心见性。

受到熏香环境、本真性格以及人生际遇的影响, 不同文人笔下的熏香呈现出不同的审美特性。本文选取晏殊、柳永、李清照和吴文英四个个案, 以熏香词为切入点, 演绎他们的审美追求和情感世界。

Incense in the Song Dynasty

In the Song Dynasty, the incense culture reached its peak. The nobles, scholars and even the common people in the court all took incense as the fashion. Inside and outside the palace walls, as large as offering sacrifices to the heavens and ancestors, as small as clothing, food, shelter and transportation, incense is indispensable. Material Literature of Song Dynasty
Ming Dynasty and spiritual civilization have reached unprecedented heights, which can be seen through incense.

By comparing with ancient perfume records and relevant notes, and combining with people’s understanding, this paper studies the common perfumes and popular perfumery in Song Dynasty, restores the style and features of incense on different occasions, and reflects the aesthetic interest and folk customs of Song Dynasty. The common perfumes in Song Dynasty were aloes, sandalwood, borneol, ambergris and musk. The perfumery included Boshan stove, smoking ball, animal stove and antique porcelain stove, which not only inherited the previous dynasty, but also integrated the aesthetic of that time.

Different occasions have different styles of incense: five courtesy incense, each has its own ceremonies; Yan bedtime condensation incense, Yan incense to lavender quilt; elegant collection of incense burning in study, calm, elegant leisure; different Festival incense practices, meaning Qixiang; banquet incense burning to promote prosperity, timely entertainment; City brokers fragrance commercial flavor is strong.

With the prosperity of incense literature in Song Dynasty, scholars greatly enriched the ideological connotation of incense imagery, including sentiment for the dead, meditation and enlightenment, recalling the homeland and praying for a happy birthday. Fumigation has its unique aesthetic implication, which should not be generalized with other incense images. Especially when burning incense while sitting in meditation, incense serves as a kinship, first observing the nose, and first observing the mind.

Influenced by the fumigation environment, the true character and the life experience, the fumigation in different literati’s works presents different aesthetic characteristics. In this paper, Yan Shu, Liu Yong, Li Qingzhao and Wu Wenying are selected as four cases to illustrate their aesthetic pursuit and emotional world from the perspective of incense ci.